Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture (European Commission) (2018): The Participatory governance of cultural heritage - Report of THE OMC (Open Method of Coordination) working group of Member States’ experts - Study. This report is the result of a collective effort by experts from 27 Countries requested by the Council of the European Union to identify ‘innovative approaches to the multilevel governance of tangible, intangible and digital heritage which involve the public sector, private stakeholders and the civil society’, in the framework of the Work Plan for Culture 2015-2018. The ‘open method of coordination’ (OMC) report seeks to move the concept of the participatory governance of cultural heritage from simply an abstract notion to concrete action, in other words how participation can be put to practical use in the ordinary and everyday governance of cultural heritage. The guiding principle behind the publication of a handbook was to make it easier for cultural heritage institutions and professionals to recognise that participatory governance of cultural heritage is important, and to feel familiar with how and when to use it in the best possible way.
Directorate-General for Education and Culture (European Commission) (2018): The role of public policies in developing entrepreneurial and innovation potential of the cultural and creative sectors. This report presents the results of lively debates and discussions, convened by the European Commission in 2016, among the EU Member States’ experts appointed to the OMC group on the topic of the role public policies play in developing the entrepreneurial and innovation potential of the cultural and creative sectors. It provides a collection of good practice for advancing further policy learning and development and recommendations to public authorities. The innovative power of the cultural and creative sectors is essential for the further development of European economies and societies, because it: - generates well-being and cohesion; - shapes the public space used by millions of Europeans; - modernises industries and business sectors with new creative input and methods; - provides meaning and a feeling of belonging; - upgrades urban and rural areas; - designs our products and services; - produces and digitises content; - enriches our visual experiences; - provides content for debates.
Gábor Sonkoly and Tanja Vahtikari (2018): Innovation in cultural heritage research: For an integrated European research policy. The context of this policy paper is the launch of the first European Year of Cultural Heritage in 2018. The paper is a notable attempt to assess the potentials and challenges of a shared European cultural heritage. Research on these complex challenges is to provide evidence and advice towards better education, cultural, social and other policies at European, national and regional levels. This policy review gives the state-of-the-art of current EU-funded research on cultural heritage. Based on this mapping exercise interpreted in its wider scientific and policy context, the Policy Review makes suggestions to attain an appropriate European research framework after 2020, fitting both the current concept of cultural heritage and the corresponding cultural, societal, economic and ecological challenges.
Culture Action Europe (2018): The Value and Values Of Culture. Culture Action Europe and the Budapest Observatory have joined forces to collect relevant research and studies in collaboration with members and partners. This cross-sectoral cooperation has allowed them to identify robust qualitative and quantitative evidence of culture’s impact at EU level and beyond, underpinned with case studies, examples of past and current best practices and principles of EU action in the cultural field. This collection offers a sound overview of the impact of culture on sustaining democratic principles and social cohesion, its fundamental role in promoting a future oriented education, its contribution to the economy and the standing of Europe in the world.
European Parliament Research Service (2017): Arts, culture, and cultural awareness in education. In the briefing for the European Parliament the European Parliament Research Service (EPRS) has brought together facts and figures on the role of arts and culture in the EU, looking at European policies and EU mechanisms and their effect in the Member States. The brief covers global challenges faced by arts and cultural education, potential benefits of arts and cultural education, the EU's role in and support for cultural education, recent policy developments in cultural education and the European Parliament's concern for arts and cultural education policy.
Council of Europe (2017): Council of Europe Convention on Offences relating to Cultural Property. The Convention aims to prevent and combat the intentional destruction of, damage to, and trafficking in cultural property by strengthening criminal justice responses to all offences relating to cultural property while facilitating co-operation on an international level.
Rosanna Lewis & Polly Martin (2017): Research for CULT Committee - EU funding for cultural work with refugees: towards the next programme generation provides an analysis of current EU programmes 2014-2020 that support cultural work with refugees in Europe in the field (DG Education and Culture and DG Migration and Home Affairs), along with case studies of EU-funded projects. It offers feedback from these projects, recommendations on the future programme generation, and suggests actions for the CULT Committee and its Members in order to inform and influence the future EU programme generation beyond 2020.
Richard Higgott (2017): Enhancing the EU’s International Cultural Relations: The Prospects and Limits of Cultural Diplomacy. The Policy Paper identifies some of the key opportunities and constraints in the advancement of International Cultural Relations (ICR) and Cultural Diplomacy (CD) in the interactive relationship between culture and foreign policy in "cursory fashion". It also briefly looks at the nature of the constraints (structural, institutional and agential) facing European cultural foreign policy in the contemporary era. The paper also identifies factors that may enhance the resilience of European actors engaged in ICR and CP in the face of constraint. Strategies of resilience are increasingly an essential element of the two.
European Commission (2017 - last updated August): Mapping of Cultural Heritage actions in European Union policies, programmes and activities. This mapping, prepared by the European Commission, provides an overview of EU policy actions and legislations and funding opportunities and programmes. It is divided into 14 chapters that focus on different parts of EU legislations related to cultural heritage. In each chapter specific policies are explained briefly and funding programmes and opportunities are introduced (except for the chapters on Education, cohesion policy, competition and citizenship which focus on one programme and are thus not divided). The mapping is a useful handbook for those interested in European funding and legislation. It provides a very well structured collection of brief and comprehensible summaries of different policies, legislations and (funding) programmes relevant for the European cultural and heritage sector.
European Union / Working Group on Promoting Access to Culture via Digital Means (2017): Promoting Access to Culture via Digital Means. The report was published as part of the EU's work plan for culture 2015-2018. Technology is changing faster than ever and impacts not only on what we do but how we think about what we do. This document addresses the fact that institutions and arts organisations (public and private), set up to carry out a public purpose, now find that through the impact of digitisation and internet tools, they are, in many cases, lagging behind. The reason for this is not always obvious – leadership, structures, resources, access to training – and the solution is not always to change leadership, to increase spending or to bring in expertise. There is a growing sense, confirmed through the research carried out for this report, that there needs to be a recalibration within organisations and institutions. This report looks at previous assumptions about knowledge and use of technoolgy and offers some ideas for reflection as well as some recommendations for change. Discussing the possibilities for audience development, community building, inclusion and accessibility. It suggests that a wide-ranging approach is needed, going beyond the institutional and encompassing policymaking at both the national and EU levels.
Alessandro Bollo, Cristina Da Milano, Alessandra Gariboldi, Chris Torch (2017): Audience Development - How to place audiences at the centre of cultural organisations. Many culture makers have embraced the theme of Audience Development (AD) to gain new and larger audiences. But how can they be reached? And how can cultural institutions measure their efforts and success? This study aimed to provide answers to these questions and offer successful approaches and methods in the area of audience development to cultural professionals as well as the European Commission. Furthermore, it aimed to feed into providing a basis for selection criteria in future calls for proposals framed by the Creative Europe Programme, thus it is a good orientation for all interested in submitting proposals. The study resulted in four guides, reports and a catalogue: Guide Part I – Tools of Audience Development: A Practical Guide for Cultural Operators | Guide Part II – Rules for Audience Development: Key recommendations | Final report | Catalogue of Case Studies
European Agenda for Culture (2016): Cultural Awareness and Expression Handbook: Through the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) a Working Group of EU Member States' experts formulated this handbook on the development of one of the key competences defined by the European Union to be integrated for lifelong learning: "Cultural Awareness and Expression". The handbook explains and comments on the recommendations by the European Parliament and Council of Europe, defines key terms and outlines general goals and intended outcomes of arts and cultural education. In the second part seven lessons for the future of cultural awareness and expression based on current European practices are explained. Among them recommendations for the preconditions when developing the skills, as well as the layers of cultural awareness. The book is completed by a seperate annex that presents good practice examples from the Member States.
European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) (2016): Culture, Cities and Identity in Europe: In the foreword Luca Jahier, President of the Various Interests Group, European Economic and Social Committee formulates the key questions of the study: Can Culture help us to overcome the systemic, political and identity crises which are currently shaking the European Union? What role can Culture and Cities play in strengthening social and territorial cohesion, in engaging in dialogue and building trust in our complex societies? Can Culture bring Hope, New Narratives and a second Renaissance to Europe?
The study examines the impact of and relationship between culture cities, their regeneration and development. The argument of whether culture is best treated in terms of its own importance or as a contributor to other social and economic benefits is discussed. The recommendations request that the EU recognises cultural rights as fundamental to human development; acknowledges culture as a necessity for sustainable development; supports exchange between cultures for social and economic development; and empowers cities’ decisions on culture to shape our future.
Directorate General for Internal Policies (2016): Cross-border Restitution Claims of Art Looted in Armed Conflicts and Wars and Alternatives to Court Litigations: The study was commissioned and supervised by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizen's Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee. It examines the legal difficulties related to art restitution claims and proposes policy recommendations for States and EU institutions to overcome these difficulties and seek to achieve just and fair solutions.
RICHES (2016): European Policy Brief. The Economic and Fiscal Dimension of Cultural Heritage: This policy brief focuses on the effects of two forms of government support: VAT regulation for Cultural heritage goods such as books and services and direct subsidies to cultural heritage organisations, e.g. in the digital sector. It presents the results and outcomes of the research that explores the relation between the characteristics of different European countries and the effects of government support in VAT rates for cultural heritage organisations, and it describes the actions that can be taken to stimulate a European society rich of and engaged with cultural heritage.
RICHES (2016): European Policy Brief: European Minorities and Identities: strengthening relationships for a sense of belonging in the digital era: This policy brief discusses the main findings of the study conducted in RICHES (Renewal, Innovation and Change: Heritage and European Society), the 7th Framework Programme, about digital cultural heritage websites and their contributions towards the development of a European identity that encapsulates the diversity of communities across the continent. It offers a series of recommendations, which can contribute to the understanding of a European identity and strengthen already existing relationships.
RICHES (2016): European Policy Brief: The Cultural Heritage Institution: Transformation and Change in Digital Age: This policy brief is concerned with cultural heritage institutions in a time of dynamic cultural, social and technological change. Following the research conducted within the RICHES project it considers the multi-faceted impact of digital technology and the recalibration of the relationship between institutional cultural heritage practices and the individual. The brief shows that the development and implementation of emerging, innovative technologies can have many benefits for cultural heritage institutions and visitors but can also be disruptive, challenging and limiting. The observations made during the research resulted in these guidelines for European policy-makers at strategic and practical levels that advocate among other things that innovation through research and new technologies are essential for bringing the cultural heritage of Europe closer to people.
NEMO: Report "Survey on Museums and Copyright" (15 August 2015): In light of European and national governments currently reviewing their approach to copyrights, NEMO has published a European-wide study on the issues, questions and problems that museums have with regard to copyright. Governments around Europe are re-thinking their approach to copyright, both on European as on national level. Since Copyright impacts on many aspects of museum work, museums need to make sure to be part of the discussions!
With this survey NEMO sought to give an overview of "real life" museum practice and IPR-related problems. Through the feedback from museums all over Europe, NEMO was able to produce well-supported recommendations for how copyright in Europe should be shaped to help museums with ensuring the best public access possible to their collections.
The report of the Horizon2020 expert group, chaired by Dr Philippe Busquin, on cultural heritage was published in 2015. It reflects on the importance of cultural heritage in Europe for the economy, society and the environment and "argues that the European Union should vigorously promote the innovative use of cultural heritage for economic growth and jobs, social cohesion and environmental sustainability."
The findings of the expert group under the Horizon 2020 work programme 2014 for the Societal Challenge Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials emphasise that even relatively moderate investments in cultural heritage can pan out. In conclusion, the group aims at contributing to the development of the cultural heritage and its potential in the EU. Thus, the report takes the framework of cultural heritage in Europe as a base to present objectives for the economic, societal and environmental sectors and recommends actions for cultural heritage, which are based on successful exemplary projects and cases.
CULT published it's "Draft Report towards an integrated approach to cultural heritage for Europe" in 2015 following the public hearing 'An integrated approach to cultural heritage in Europe: State of play and perspectives' in December 2014. Based on the conclusions drawn from the hearing and the latest policy documents issued on the subject the report was build. The formulated approaches refer to the tangible, intangible, and digital 'cultural heritage' and the recognised neccessity of an integrated approach towards the field. In the report CULT addresses recommendations to the Commission and the EU member states on preservation, professional care, funding, and the economic value through various tools such as guidelines, the exchange of best practices, or cooperative work. Among several suggestions CULT makes the recommendation to the Commission to communicate to potential beneficiaries, in an accessible way, the existing European funding lines for cultural heritage and to emphasise the role of the Member States in ensuring both adequate quality control and a qualified workforce on the heritage restoration sites as required by the international charters.
Engaging the World: towards Global Cultural Citizenship
Engaging the World: towards Global Cultural Citizenship - (2014) More Europe Initiative, Prepartory Action: Culture in EU External Relations.
This guide was published in 2014 and introduces different EU funding programmes from the 2014-2020 period and ways in which they can be used in the tourism sector. The introduced programmes range from "LIFE", which is mainly focusing on environmental and nature conservation projects throughout the EU, to the Regional Development Fund, which is one of the five "European Structural and Investment Funds". In an easy-to-follow structure each programme is first introduced and it's applicability in the tourism sector is explained. It also answers the questions on eligibility, the type and level of funding as well as the application process itself. Lastly, successful examples are given. Although it is aimed at the tourism sector the handbook offers general rules that apply to anyone aiming to apply for EU funding programmes, especially in the cultural sector.
Access to Culture - Policy Analysis Review on the Policies at European Level
Access to Culture - Policy Analysis Review on the Policies at European Level - (2013) Prepared by the Nordic Centre for Heritage Learning and Creativity (NCK), the Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO) and the Interarts Foundation. October 2013. This review summarizes the positions on access to culture as stated in official policy documents, policy papers, research studies and reports. In the context of the Access to Culture - Policy Analysis project, this review aims to examine the current context of access to culture policies at European level, on the basis of recent literature, and to inform subsequent steps of the project.
ENCATC: Responding to the crisis with culture: Towards new governance & business models for the cultural sector
ENCATC: Responding to the crisis with culture: Towards new governance & business models for the cultural sector - (2013) An ENCATC Policy Debate Report, Brussels, Belgium. ENCATC is the European Network on Cultural Management and Cultural Policy Education.
EU Commission - Cultural Access and Participation Report - Special Eurobarometer 399
EU Commission - Cultural Access and Participation Report - Special Eurobarometer 399 - (2013) This report gives an overview on how European citizens engage in cultural activities, what barriers they face and in which way the internet is used for it.
Report: "Mapping of Cultural and Creative Industry Export and Internationalisation Strategies in EU Member States" released
Published: 2013. A recently published report by Judith Staines and Colin Mercer of the European Expert Network on Culture lists approximately 100 publications, policy documents and evaluation reports from the past five years, as well as around 230 bodies involved in the export and internationalisation strategies of cultural and creative industries. The report covers all EU Member States and was commissioned by the European Commission within the framework of the Work Plan for Culture 2011 - 2014.
Resources: Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends
The 'Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe' is a web-based and permanently updated information and monitoring system of national cultural policies in Europe. It is a long-term project which aims to include all 50 member states co-operating within the context of the European Cultural Convention. This transnational project was initiated by the Steering Committee for Culture of the Council of Europe and has been running as a joint venture with the European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research (ERICarts) since 1998. It is realised in partnership with a 'community of practice' comprised of independent cultural policy researchers, NGOs and national governments.