Culture is Digital

UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (2018): Culture is Digital. The report focuses on the use of digital technology to drive our cultural sector’s global status and the engagement, diversity and well-being of audiences in the United Kingdom. Digital technology is breaking down the silos between the cultural sectors, blurring the lines between disciplines. Tech companies are collaborating with cultural organisations and practitioners to create new experiences for audiences, often exploring the boundaries of new technology at the same time.

Digitising Collections: Leveraging Volunteers & Crowdsourcing to Accelerate Digitisation

Axiell and MCN (2017): Digitising Collections: Leveraging Volunteers & Crowdsourcing to Accelerate Digitisation. The report explores the current digitisation strategies of today’s collections management organisations, drawing on the views of more than 100 professionals working in museums, archives, galleries and other collections institutions. 118 Respondents took part in a global survey launched in October 2016 and follow up interviews were conducted with a sample of the participants. A particular focus is set on how readily the participants are integrating volunteers into their approach and moving to crowdsourcing to increase their rate of digitisation. Examples from more than 10 institutions world-wide provide insight into how these strategies are working in practice.  

The Museum of the Future: Insights and reflections from 10 international museums

Symbola Foundation - Museum of the Future, Mu.SA Project (2017):  The Museum of the Future: Insights and reflections from 10 international museums. Museum Sector Alliance (mu.Sa) has released a report on the future of museums in the time of digitalisation. To understand what role the digital driver is playing in the modernization of the industry, mu.Sa asked ten internationally renowned European museums, where varying types and sizes of collections are conserved, about their views on the future and digital technology.

Copyright exceptions: an archivists' perspective

Jean Dryden (2017): Copyright exceptions: an archivists' perspective. This article appeared in WIPO Magazine in August 2017 and describes the challenges archivists encounter when it comes to copyright. These share many touching points with museums, while the materials they hold may differ, their interest in copyright exceptions particularly to increase and safeguard public accessibility of materials and information is rather similar. The article points out important aspects and arguments on the topic.

Report: Reuse of Public Sector Information in Poland Following Public Sector Information Act

Centrum Cyfrowe & Fundaja ePanstwo (2017): Report: Reuse of Public Sector Information in Poland Following Public Sector Information Act. In this report 36 Polish institutions, among them 20 cultural institutions, were asked to provide feedback on how they implemented the "Act of 25 February 2016 on reuse of public sector information" in Poland. The goal was to enable access to public sector information, which in this definition included cultural heritage. The report asked how many and what kind of requests the institution received (between 16 June 2016 and 24 April 2017), how they responded and if there was a price range in place. The main findings are available in the report.

Promoting Access to Culture via Digital Means

European Union / Working Group on Promoting Access to Culture via Digital Means (2017): Promoting Access to Culture via Digital Means. The report was published as part of the EU's work plan for culture 2015-2018. Technology is changing faster than ever and impacts not only on what we do but how we think about what we do. This document addresses the fact that institutions and arts organisations (public and private), set up to carry out a public purpose, now find that through the impact of digitisation and internet tools, they are, in many cases, lagging behind. The reason for this is not always obvious – leadership, structures, resources, access to training – and the solution is not always to change leadership, to increase spending or to bring in expertise. There is a growing sense, confirmed through the research carried out for this report, that there needs to be a recalibration within organisations and institutions. This report looks at previous assumptions about knowledge and use of technoolgy and offers some ideas for reflection as well as some recommendations for change. Discussing the possibilities for audience development, community building, inclusion and accessibility. It suggests that a wide-ranging approach is needed, going beyond the institutional and encompassing policymaking at both the national and EU levels.

Digital Strategy for Museums

Alex Morrison (2017): Digital Strategy for Museums. The guide provides support in defining and shaping a digital strategy in museums that incorporates the different aspects and layers of museums and their activities aiming to provide a clear vision for the digital programmes based on resources and evidence from the institution. The 47-page document delivers some core definitions and reasoning on why museums and digital are connected to each other and goes on to offer general guidelines towards developing and establishing a digital strategy at an institution - especially embedding it at senior level within the institution. The theoretical advice is accompanied by a collection of references to digital strategies from various institutions on the website of the Cogapp digital media agency.

Influence of New Media Technologies on the Success of Museum Exhibitions

Sofia Widman (2017): Influence of New Media Technologies on the Success of Museum Exhibitions. The master thesis aims to close the gap between knowing why and what to invest in new media technology and its contribution to the success of museum exhibitions. Through literature review, interviews and a widely distributed questionnaire the questions of usage, influence and future role of new media for and in museum exhibitions were explored by Widman. This resulted in a new media toolbox for museum managers supporting them in checking the viability of new media, comparing it and thinking of creative ways to apply it.

HACKING CULTURE: A how to guide for hackathons in the cultural sector

Waag Society (2017): Hacking Culture: A how to guide for hackathons in the cultural sector. A hackathon is not a one-size-fits-all format that suits every purpose. It can bring insights, inspiration and ideas. But its success depends on you. Based on the experience with organizing six hackathons in the Europeana Space project and the pre-existing experience with project partners, this how to guide was created. It offers an understanding of hackathons, explores their use and value for the cultural sector, addresses issues such as Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and last but not least helps you to get started with organising one yourself by offering hands-on advise on strategy, programme and preparation.

Best case scenarios for copyright

Communia (June 2016): Best Case Scenarios for Copyright series: In the series shared on the Communia blog four examples of copyright policies, such as user-friendly copyright limitations or dealing with freedom of panorama, from Portugal, France, Estonia and Finland are presented. You can click through individual blog posts, each focusing on one of the countries' legal response to a certain aspect of copyright.

European Policy Brief: The Cultural Heritage Institution: Transformation and Change in Digital Age

RICHES (2016): European Policy Brief: The Cultural Heritage Institution: Transformation and Change in Digital Age: This policy brief is concerned with cultural heritage institutions in a time of dynamic cultural, social and technological change. Following the research conducted within the RICHES project it considers the multi-faceted impact of digital technology and the recalibration of the relationship between institutional cultural heritage practices and the individual. The brief shows that the development and implementation of emerging, innovative technologies can have many benefits for cultural heritage institutions and visitors but can also be disruptive, challenging and limiting. The observations made during the research resulted in these guidelines for European policy-makers at strategic and practical levels that advocate among other things that innovation through research and new technologies are essential for bringing the cultural heritage of Europe closer to people.

European Policy Brief: European Minorities and Identities: strengthening relationships for a sense of belonging in the digital era

RICHES (2016): European Policy Brief: European Minorities and Identities: strengthening relationships for a sense of belonging in the digital era: This policy brief discusses the main findings of the study conducted in RICHES (Renewal, Innovation and Change: Heritage and European Society), the 7th Framework Programme, about digital cultural heritage websites and their contributions towards the development of a European identity that encapsulates the diversity of communities across the continent. It offers a series of recommendations,  which can contribute to the understanding of a European identity and strengthen already existing relationships.

Guidelines for the selection of digital heritage for long-term preservation

UNESCO/PERSIST Project (2016): Guidelines for the selection of digital heritage for long-term preservation. The guidelines were developed by seven authors from museums, archives and libraries to provide a starting point for institutions (museums, archives and libraries) to draft their own digital heritage selection policy or assess and revise existing policies if required. As the lifespan of digital heritage is limited it is important to identify significant digital heritage and intervene early to ensure long-term preservation. Additionally, the diversity of digital heritage between communities, regions and countries, makes engagement and cooperation of the public and the private sectors, as well as content creators necessary. All of these aspects are considered in the guidelines, which are available in English, French and Arabic.

Position Paper NEMO "Museums and Copyright"

NEMO (2016): Position Paper on "Museums and Copyright": The position paper was put together as a result of the feedback from NEMO's members on the recommendations  and conclusions formulated in the IPR study that was published in August 2015. Almost all organisations stated that copyright was an issue of concern in their country, while all of them support and agree with NEMO's recommendations and conclusions drawn from the study. There are differences between the countries concerning the degree to which museums are involved in copyright legislation on the national level. This paper should help and support the organisations in advocating their interests.

Culture is Digital - Digital is Culture

ECCE (European Centre for creative economy) (2015): Culture is Digital - Digital is Culture: The discussions under the motto "Culture is Digital - Digital is Culture" at the Forum d'Avignon Ruhr 2015 are documented in this publication. The talks, presentations and exchanges were accompanied by two main issues: Public cultural institutions that should be makers in the realms of digitalisation facing a decline in public funding on the one side and the growing cultural and creative industries on the other. "How can the Cultural and Creative Industries be drivers for digitalisation? Or are they drivers precisely because of the permanent urge for innovation? Which creative ideas trigger new digital worlds or values? And how can artists and creative professionals make a better living from their work?" This also lead to further discussions on the influence of cultural and creative sectors and public institutions on the politics of digitisation. The documentation should serve as an "insight into the debates and inspirations that emerge from the trinity of art, the economy and politics."

NEMO study "Museums and Copyright"

NEMO (15 August 2015): Survey on Museums and Copyright: In light of European and national governments  reviewing their approach to copyrights, NEMO has published a European-wide study on the issues, questions and problems that museums have with regard to copyright. Governments around Europe are re-thinking their approach to copyright, both on European as on national level. Since Copyright impacts on many aspects of museum work, museums need to make sure to be part of the discussions!
With this survey NEMO sought to give an overview of "real life" museum practice and IPR-related problems. Through the feedback from museums all over Europe, NEMO was able to produce well-supported recommendations for how copyright in Europe should be shaped to help museums with ensuring the best public access possible to their collections.

Technology in Museums: making the latest advances work for our cultural institutions

Adrian Murphy (December 2015):Technology in Museums: making the latest advances work for our cultural institutions: This feature on technology in museums by the Museums and Heritage Advisor presents six case studies on the latest advances in technology work for cultural institutions. The six examples of new, pioneering ways to display and show collections, are partly not open or available to the public yet and even still in development. While one project dealt with a re-creation of a former palace, another one used face-recognition to design an individual visitor experience. The projects from institutions and suppliers in the Netherlands, the United States, and the United Kingdom all invite visitor interaction in different ways and might offer inspiration to others, as well as pave the way for a wider usage of digital tools.

The Future of Learning: Education in the Era of Partners in Code

Katherine Prince, Jason Swanson, Andrea Saveri (Knowledge Works/Saveri Consulting) (December 2015): The Future of Learning: Education in the Era of Partners in Code: The forecast by KnowledgeWorks is a response to the developments in society, economy and the digital realms, which also affect education. The publication asks many thought-provoking questions and leaves room for thoughts and ideas. It takes on the subject with an open-minded perspective that includes the connection of impact layers of people, structures, and society and so-called drivers of change. Readers are invited to explore the possibilities and consider their own role in learning.

Furnace Issue Two: Cultural Heritage in a Digital Age

University of Birmingham (published October 2015):Furnace Issue Two: Cultural Heritage in a Digital Age:  In this issue furnace takes on the topic of Cultural Heritage in a Digital Age in 9 articles. It focuses on the framework between cultural heritage and digital technology and explores it through different case studies. Key questions are whether digital technology excludes or includes? How such fields as crowdsourcing or user generated content are participatory and if an ethical and critical discourse has "been developed to accommodate this rapidly developing environment"? This leads way to a discussion on the future of cultural heritage. The journal furnace is a postgraduate journal by the Ironbridge International Institute for Cultural Heritage (IIICH) of the University of Birmingham.

the issue also includes an exclusive report from the newly-formed UK Digital Technology Committee of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). - See more at:

the issue also includes an exclusive report from the newly-formed UK Digital Technology Committee of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). - See more at:

the issue also includes an exclusive report from the newly-formed UK Digital Technology Committee of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). - See more at:

The Warhol Museum Digital Strategy on github

The Andy Warhol Museum (2015): Digital Strategy on GitHub: GitHub is an online platform for software engineers to collaborate and work together on their code. It allows them to share their code, track changes and seemlessly work together on one project. The Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, United States, used the platform to make their digital strategy available online. The abilities of gitHub are particularly interesting for the museum to display the changes and adjustments they make to their strategy that will be viewable to all members of their staff and the cultural sector. The current strategy is also available for download.

Like, Link, Share: How cultural institutions are embracing digital technology

The report from November 2014 was commissioned by the Wyncote Foundation and deals with the use of digital technologies in cultural institutions and how digital media is used by the innovators in the field. One of the main challenges is the customisation of the technologies for specific programmes. 40 organisations were considered for the study, which resulted in advice on strategies, procedures, organisation, audience engagement and development and even developing resulting business models in and through digital means.

EENC: Mapping of practices in the EU Member States on promoting access to culture via digital means

The European Expert Network on Culture's “Mapping of practices in the EU Member States on promoting access to culture via digital means” (2015) aims to analyse the challenges and future possibilities for European cultural organisations in the current environment of fast technological change, global competition, and tight budgets. It also identifies examples of practices that appear to be the most efficient or mostly used to support audience development via digital means, in a broad spectrum of sectors.

This document has been prepared by Ms. Cristina Da Milano and Mr. Niels Righolt on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture and is a follow-up to Niels Righolt's paper "Promoting access to culture via digital means" (March 2015) which deals with similar topics and the communication challenges cultural institutions are facing.

Policy Recommendations for Education and Learning

In 2015 Europeana published this recommendation for the use of digital cultural heritage in education and learning. It was worked out by policymakers from European Ministries of Culture and Education and experts in the field of education from 21 different countries. The document concerns all forms and levels of education and learning, from formal classroom teaching in schools and universities to adult education and informal learning in, for instance, the context of associations or at home. It identifies action points for the (re-)use of European digital cultural heritage, collated under Europeana. It also provides information about proper use of the material, and encourages the development and sharing of digital learning resources. In the document the need to develop a structured dialogue between policymakers on national and European levels, cultural heritage institutions, educational practitioners and civil society structures concerned with learning, regarding the availability and use of digital cultural heritage resources in education and learning, becomes evident.

A Roadmap for the Preservation of Digital Cultural Heritage Content

Within the Digital Cultural Heritage Roadmap for Preservation (DCH-RP) project this handbook was developed and published in 2014 to make it possible for each cultural heritage institution to define its own practical action plan for the preservation of digital cultural heritage.

The DCH-RP roadmap aims to provide a practical instrument to decision makers, offering an overview of the principal problems and challenges that digital preservation poses, a range of references to existing solutions, and a critical synthesis of the steps that memory institutions and policy makers should be ready to take. DCH-RP considers the roadmap to be a "living document" therefore presenting the latest versions in a dedicated webspace.

Digital Storytelling in museums - a tool to engage adults and to evaluate the impact

Within the DIAMOND-project ("Dialoguing Museums for a New Cultural Democracy"), whose main objective was to bring together a group of scientific museums and research centers in the effort to provide learning opportunities for adults through ICTs, the handbook "Stories for museums. Museums stories. Digital storytelling and inclusive scientific museums: a European project" was published in 2014. It aims to become a useful tool for exploring the different applications of museum activities within the cultural sector, with special emphasis on science museums and the use of digital storytelling. The handbook is available in English, as well as Italian, Romanian and Spanish.

Museums in the Digital Age and Museums and the Development of Active Citizenship

Museums in the Digital Age and Museums and the Development of Active Citizenship - (2014) NEMO's documentation of its' 2013 Annual Conference in Bucharest, Romania with a collection of articles from the presenters. In times of an ever-changing society, museums face a shift of values. This development - an increased demand for museums to act as social agents encouraging social cohesion while also contributing to a growing economy - has become more and more important. NEMO tackles these and various other issues within this publication that examines key questions museums in Europe face on a daily basis. With articles from museum professionals and experts from all over Europe the documentation offers a unique insight into three overarching themes: 'Museums in the Digital Age', 'Museums and the Development of Active Citizenship' and 'The Future of the EU Cultural Strategy'.

Sharing is Caring - Openness and sharing in the cultural heritage sector

Sharing is Caring - Openness and sharing in the cultural heritage sector - (2014) Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen. "Openness and sharing in the cultural heritage sector" is an anthology that explores the changes and opportunities brought about by digitisation, digital media, and the internet for the cultural heritage world and users. The anthology spans a wide range of themes and approaches. It contains contributions from museum professionals, scholars, public sector administrators, a lawyer and a school teacher. The red line through it all is an urge to explore the new opportunities to open up and share knowledge and resources, which digitisation brings about.

LEM Report 5: Technology and the public. Evaluation of ICT in Museums

LEM Report 5: Technology and the public. Evaluation of ICT in Museums - (2013) Edited by Ann Nicholls, Manuela Pereira and Jenny Siung. The fifth report by the Learning Museum Project (LEM) concentrated on ICT in museums. It offers a framework for a user study for Multimedia Users and Audiences for Cultural Heritage, as well as specific examples of user studies that have been executed.

Museums in the Digital Age

Museums in the Digital Age - (2013) Author: Josef Hargrave. This short report raises questions: What will future visitors be like? In which ways could museums use new technologies for themselves? What could exhibitions and collections look like in 2040? The report does not offer specific answers, but instead invites readers to think about these topics for themselves and their institutions, offering examples and general advice along the way.

The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition

Published: 2013. This Museum Edition examines emerging technologies for their potential impact on and use in education and interpretation within the museum environment. Six emerging technologies are identified across three adoption horizons over the next one to five years, as well as key trends and significant challenges expected to continue over the same period, giving museum professionals and boards of trustees a valuable guide for strategic technology planning. Launched in 2010, the NMC Horizon Report > Museum Edition expanded the NMC Horizon Report series to provide insight on the entrance of new tools and applications in the museum sector.

WIPO Guide on Managing Intellectual Property for Museums - 2013 Edition

WIPO Guide on Managing Intellectual Property for Museums - 2013 Edition - (2013) Prepared by Ms. Rina Elster Pantalony. This guide delivers important information on Intellectual Property Rights in museums. Their role and how to approach them. Starting with an introduction and the basics of IP, the guide offers advice on definition and management of the topic in museums, as well as business opportunities.

LEM Report 1: The Virtual Museum

LEM Report 1: The Virtual Museum - (2012) Edited by: Ann Nicholls, Manuella Pereira, and Margherita Sani.
In the first report by the Learning Museum Project the authors take a look at the definition of virtual museums, their role in the future of museums and society and the user experience. The publication offers a comprehensive look at approaches to virtual museums through specific examples such as Europeana and more theoretical approaches.

Augmented Reality Livens up Museums

This post published in Aug 2012 discusses the opportunities of augmented reality especially in museums. Not just as further layers of information but instead to bring museum dinosaurs to life. The article discusses augmented reality for the small screen in more detail and also offers examples from other places, including brands from entirely different sectors than the museum world.

Representing Museum Technologies

Representing Museum Technologies - (2012) Edited by Jamie Allen and Eleonora Lupo Published by MeLa Project. The use of technologies in the context of museums and cultural institutions is a topic that helps bring a focus to the myriad of representational, interactive and informational forms these cultural milieux allow. Combined with developments in the public take-up of mobile technologies and networked media and communications, technologies used in representing and producing culture cause us to fundamentally re-imagine and reinvent the role of cultural institutions in a technological society. This case study source book is a snapshot, a distillation of contemporary practice by museums and cultural institutions, along with commentary, critique and best practice reflections by interdisciplinary-researchers from the MeLa project.

Survey Report on Digitisation in European Cultural Heritage Institutions 2012

The Survey Report on Digitisation in Cultural Heritage Institutions 2012 represents the first major study into the current state of digitisation in Europe. It is the result of a survey carried out by the ENUMERATE Thematic Network. About 2000 institutions answered the open call to participate between January and March 2012. The survey asked questions about: - The state of digitisation activity in the institution responding; - Access to digital collections; - Its digital preservation strategy; - Expenditure of digitisation by the institution.

A "Smart" Authoring and Delivery Tool for Multichannel Communication

This paper was published in 2011. 'Reuse' is a way to enrich the variety of user experiences, while keeping costs down. Reuse needs 'adaptation' of content to different contexts. Reuse and adaptation need authoring methodologies and tools. This paper presents a comprehensive model for content reuse-adaption and an innovative authoring approach. The approach is supported by 1001 stories, an advanced authoring-delivery toolkit. Examples of the approach are drawn from Nippon Multimedia, a family of applications developed to support four exhibitions about Japanese culture, held in Lugano in winter 2010 (

Surfing and walking. Museums and the 2.0 challenges.

Published: 2011 by Alessandro Bollo. In the last years an incredible increase in the use of technology has taken place in both the domestic and working environment and particularly applied to free time. The convergence of communication and information, the decrease of the technology costs of production and consume, the rise of 'long-tail' economies, as well as the Web 2.0 standing out are just few of the most relevant phenomena at the global level. It needs to be considered that, in terms of access to the new technologies, despite the still existing not irrelevant conditions of digital device at a general level (the incidence of which is very variable according to the national contest and social composition), we see a steady increase in the use of the Internet by an increasingly wider number of users' categories.

From 3D virtual museum to 3D collaborative virtual workshop

Mikhail Fominykh, Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland and Mikhail Morozov: From 3D virtual museum to 3D collaborative virtual workshop: In recent years, virtual museums have become more widespread and the usage of them for educational purposes has increased. They are used to facilitate educational process in different ways, such as presenting their exhibitions online and serving as a place for educational activities. The paper presents an example of such a virtual museum – "3D Virtual Environment for Learning Arts". Still, only few of existing virtual museums provide sufficient support for collaboration and social interaction. Therefore, considering the growing importance of collaborative technologies and social networking in education, the authors show how a virtual museum can be enhanced and extended to serve as a collaborative virtual workshop.


In the following paragraphs you will find general resources or series of publications.

Resource: Copyright for Creativity Wiki

This platform acts both as an information resource and as the "political memory" of the initiative Copyright for Creativity (C4C). The information ranges from the analysis of specific articles, to procedural information (e.g. timelines, Rapporteurs and Shadow Rapporteurs, etc.), to notes from MEP and Attaché meetings. NEMO is a member of C4C.